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三字经

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发表于 2013-3-5 22:13:46 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
内容翻译
讨论类型: 内容翻译
关键字: 三字经原文、释义及英文翻译
三字经(San  Tzu  Ching)
  人之初,性本善。性相近,習相遠。
苟不教,性乃遷。教之道,貴以專。
昔孟母,擇鄰處。子不學,斷機杼。
竇燕山,有義方,教五子,名俱揚。
養不教,父之過;教不嚴,師之惰。
子不學,非所宜。幼不學,老何為?
玉不琢,不成器;人不學,不知義。
為人子,方少時,親師友,習禮儀。
香九齡,能溫席。孝於親,所當執。
融四歲,能讓梨。弟於長,宜先知。
首孝弟,次見聞。知某數,識某文。
一而十,十而百,百而千,千而萬。
三才者,天地人。三光者,日月星。
三綱者,君臣義,父子親,夫婦順。
曰春夏,曰秋冬,此四時,運不窮。
曰南北,曰西東,此四方,應乎中。
曰水火,木金土,此五行,本乎數。
曰仁義,禮智信,此五常,不容紊。
稻梁菽,麥黍稷,此六穀,人所食。
馬牛羊,雞犬豕,此六畜,人所飼。
曰喜怒,曰哀懼,愛惡慾,七情具。
匏土革,木石金,與絲竹,乃八音。
高曾祖,父而身,身而子,子而孫。
自子孫,至玄曾,乃九族,人之倫。
父子恩,夫婦從;兄則友,弟則恭;
長幼序,友與朋;君則敬,臣則忠。
此十義,人所同。
凡訓蒙,須講究。詳訓詁,明句讀。
為學者,必有初。小學終,至四書。
論語者,二十篇;群弟子,記善言。
孟子者,七篇止;講道德,說仁義。
作中庸,子思筆;自修齊,至平治。*
孝經通,四書熟,如六經,始可讀。
詩書易,禮春秋,號六經,當講求。
有連山,有歸藏,有周易,三易詳。
有典謨,有訓誥,有誓命,書之奧。
我周公,作周禮,著六官,存治體。
大小戴,註禮記,述聖言,禮樂備。
曰國風,曰雅頌,號四詩,當諷詠。
詩既亡,春秋作,寓褒眨,別善惡。
三傳者,有公羊,有左氏,有榖梁。
經既明,方讀子。撮其要,記其事。
五子者,有荀揚,文中子,及老莊。
經子通,讀諸史,考世系,知終始。
自羲農,至黃帝,號三皇,居上世。
唐有虞,號二帝,相揖遜,稱盛世。
夏有禹,商有湯,周文武,稱三王。
夏傳子,家天下,四百載,遷夏社。
湯伐夏,國號商,六百載,至紂亡。
周武王,始誅紂,八百載,最長久。
周轍東,王綱墜,逞干戈,尚遊說。
始春秋,終戰國,五霸彊,七雄出。
嬴秦氏,始兼併,傳二世,楚漢爭。
高祖興,漢業建,至孝平,王莽篡。
光武興,為東漢,四百年,終於獻。
蜀魏吳,分漢鼎,號三國,迄兩晉。
宋齊繼,梁陳承,為南朝,都金陵。
北元魏,分東西,宇文周,與高齊。
迨至隋,一土宇,不再傳,失統緒。
唐高祖,起義師,除隋亂,創國基。
二十傳,三百載,梁滅之,國乃改。
梁唐晉,及漢周,稱五代,皆有由。
炎宋興,受周襌,十八傳,南北混。
十七史,全在茲。載治亂,知興衰。
讀史者,考實錄。通古今,若親目。
口而誦,心而惟。朝於斯,夕於斯。
昔仲尼,師項橐,古聖賢,尚勤學。
趙中令,讀魯論,彼既仕,學且勤。
披蒲編,削竹簡,彼無書,且知勉。
頭懸梁,錐刺股,彼不教,自勤苦。
如囊螢,如映雪,家雖貧,學不輟。
如負薪,如掛角,身雖勞,猶苦卓。
蘇老泉,二十七,始發憤,讀書籍。
彼既老,猶悔遲;爾小生,宜早思。
若梁灝,八十二,對大廷,魁多士。
彼既成,眾稱異;爾小生,宜立志。
瑩八歲,能詠詩;泌七歲,能賦碁。
彼穎悟,人稱奇;爾幼學,當效之。
蔡文姬,能辨琴;謝道韞,能詠吟。
彼女子,且聰敏;爾男子,當自警。
唐劉晏,方七歲,舉神童,作正字,
彼雖幼,身已仕;爾幼學,勉而致。
有為者,亦若是。
犬守夜,雞司晨。苟不學,曷為人?
蠶吐絲,蜂釀蜜。人不學,不如物。
幼而學,壯而行。上致君,下澤民。
揚名聲,顯父母。光於前,裕於後。
人遺子,金滿籯;我教子,惟一經。
勤有功,戲無益。戒之哉,宜勉力。

《三字经》解释及英文翻译
    人之初,性本善。性相近,习相远。   
【解释】人生下来的时候都是好的,只是由于成长过程中,后天的学习环境不一样,性情也就有了好与坏的差别。
men at their birth,
are naturally good.
their natures are much the same;
their habits become widely different.    
    苟不教,性乃迁。教之道,贵以专。   
【解释】如果从小不好好教育,善良的本性就会变坏。为了使人不变坏,最重要的方法就是要专心一致地去教育孩子。
if follishly there is no teaching,
the nature will deteriorate.
the right way in teaching,
is to attach the utmost importance  
   昔孟母,择邻处。子不学,断机杼。   
【解释】战国时,孟子的母亲曾三次搬家,是为了使孟子有个好的学习环境。一次孟子逃学,孟母就割断织机的布来教子。
of old, the mother of mencius
chose a neighbourhood
and when her child would not learn,
she broke the shuttle from the loom.    
    窦燕山,有义方。教五子,名俱扬。   
【解释】五代时,燕山人窦禹钧教育儿子很有方法,他教育的五个儿子都很有成就,同时科举成名。  
tou of the swallow hills
had the right method
he taugh five son,
each of whom raised the family reputation.  
    养不教,父之过。教不严,师之惰。   
【解释】仅仅是供养儿女吃穿,而不好好教育,是父亲的过错。只是教育,但不严格要求就是做老师的懒惰了。  
to feed without teaching,
is the father's fault.
to teach without severity,
is the teacher's laziness.  
    子不学,非所宜。幼不学,老何为。   
【解释】小孩子不肯好好学习,是很不应该的。一个人倘若小时候不好好学习,到老的时候既不懂做人的道理,又无知识,能有什么用呢?
if the child does not learn,
this is not as it should be.
if he does not learn while young,
what will he be when old ?   
    玉不琢,不成器。人不学,不知义。   
【解释】玉不打磨雕刻,不会成为精美的器物;人若是不学习,就不懂得礼仪,不能成才。  
if jade is not polished,
it cannot become a thing of use.
if a man does not learn,
he cannot know his duty towards his neighbour. 
   为人子,方少时。亲师友,习礼仪   
【解释】做儿女的,从小时候就要亲近老师和朋友,以便从他们那里学习到许多为人处事的礼节和知识。
he who is the son of a man,
when he is young,
should attach himself to his teachers and friends;
and practise ceremonial usages.  
   香九龄,能温席。孝于亲,所当执   
【解释】东汉人黄香,九岁时就知道孝敬父亲,替父亲暖被窝。这是每个孝顺父母的人都应该实行和效仿的。
hsiang, at nine years of age,
could warm his parent's bed.
filial piety towards parents,
is that to which we should hold fast.   
   融四岁,能让梨。弟于长,宜先知   
【解释】汉代人孔融四岁时,就知道把大的梨让给哥哥吃,这种尊敬和友爱兄长的道理,是每个人从小就应该知道的。
jung, at four years of age,
could yield the (bigger) pears.
to hehave as a younger brother towards elders,
is one of the first things to know.    
   首孝悌,次见闻。知某数,识某文   
【解释】一个人首先要学的是孝敬父母和兄弟友爱的道理,接下来是学习看到和听到的知识。并且要知道基本的算术和高深的数学,以及认识文字,阅读文学。
begin with filial piety and fraternal love,
and then see and hear .
learn to count,
and learn to read.
   一而十,十而百。百而千,千而万   
【解释】我国采用十进位算术方法:一到十是基本的数字,然后十个十是一百,十个一百是一千,十个一千是一万……一直变化下去。
units and tens,
then tens and hundreds,
hundreds and thousands,
thousands and then tens of thousands.   
   三才者,天地人。三光者,日月星   
【解释】还应该知道一些日常生活常识,如什么叫“三才”?三才指的是天、地、人三个方面。什么叫“三光呢?三光就是太阳、月亮、星星。
the three forces,
are heaven, earth and man.
the three luminaries,
are the sun,the moon and the stars.   
   三纲者,君臣义。父子亲,夫妇顺   
【解释】什么是“三纲”呢?三纲是人与人之间关系应该遵守的三个行为准则,就是君王与臣子的言行要合乎义理,父母子女之间相亲相爱,夫妻之间和顺相处。
the three bonds,
are the obligation between soverign and subject,
the love between father and child,
the harmony between husband and wife.
   曰春夏,曰秋冬。此四时,运不穷   
【解释】再让我们看一看四周环境,春、夏、秋、冬叫做四季。这四时季节不断变化,春去夏来,秋去冬来,如此循环往复,永不停止。
we speak of spring and summer,
we speak of autumn and winter,
these four seasons,
revolve without ceasing.    
   曰南北,曰西东。此四方,应乎中   
【解释】说到东、南、西、北,这叫作“四方”,是指各个方向的位置。这四个方位,必须有个中央位置对应,才能把各个方位定出来。
we speak of north and south,
we speak of east and west,
these four points,
respond to the requirements of the centre.  
   曰水火,木金土。此五行,本乎数   
【解释】至于说到“五行”,那就是金、木、水、火、土。这是中国古代用来指宇宙各种事物的抽象概念,是根据一、二、三、四、五这五个数字和组合变化而产生的。
we speak of water, fire,
wood,metal and earth.
these five elements,
have their origin in number.     
   曰仁义,礼智信。此五常,不容紊   
【解释】如果所有的人都能以仁、义、礼、智、信这五种不变的法则做为处事做人的标准,社会就会永保祥和,所以每个人都应遵守,不可怠慢疏忽。
we speak of charity, of duty towards one neighbour,
of propriety, of wisdom, and of truth.
these five virtues,
admit of no compromise.   
   稻梁菽,麦黍稷。此六谷,人所食。   
【解释】人类生活中的主食有的来自植物,像稻子、小麦、豆类、玉米和高梁,这些是我们日常生活的重要食品。
rice , spike, millet, pulse
wheat, glutinous millet and common millet,
these six grains,
are those wh
ich men eat.   
   马牛羊,鸡犬豕。此六畜,人所饲。   
【解释】在动物中有马、牛、羊、鸡、狗和猪,这叫六畜。这些动物和六谷一样本来都是野生的。后来被人们渐渐驯化后,才成为人类日常生活的必需品。
the horse, the ox, the sheep,
the fowl, the dog, the pig.
these six animals,
are those which men keep.   
   曰喜怒,曰哀惧。爱恶欲,七情俱。   
【解释】高兴叫作喜,生气叫作哀,害怕叫作惧,心里喜欢叫爱,讨厌叫恶,内心很贪恋叫作欲,合起来叫七情。这是人生下来就有的七种感情。
we speak of joy, of anger,
we speak of pity, of fear,
of love , of hate and of desire.
these are the seven passions.    
   匏土革,木石金。丝与竹,乃八音。   
【解释】我国古代人把制造乐器的材料,分为八种,即匏瓜、粘土、皮革、木块、石头、金属、丝线与竹子,称为“八音”。
the gound, earthenware,skin
wood, stone metal,
silk and bamboo,
yield the eight musical sounds.
   高曾祖,父而身。身而子,子而孙。   
【解释】由高祖父生曾祖父,曾祖父生祖父,祖父生父亲,父亲生我本身,我生儿子,儿子再生孙子。
great great grandfather,great grandfather, grandfather,
father and self,
self and son,
son and grandson,   
   自子孙,至玄曾。乃九族,人之伦。   
【解释】由自己的儿子、孙子再接下去,就是曾孙和玄孙。从高祖父到玄孙称为“九族”。这“九族”代表着人的长幼尊卑秩序和家族血统的承续关系。
rom son and grandson,
on to great grandson and great great grandson.
these are the nine agnates,
constituting the kinships of man.   
   父子恩,夫妇从。兄则友,弟则恭。   
【解释】父亲与儿子之间要注重相互的恩情,夫妻之间的感情要和顺,哥哥对弟弟要友爱,弟弟对哥哥则要尊敬。
affection between father and child,
harmony between husband and wife,
friendliness on the part of elder brothers,
respectfulness on the part of younger brothers,    
   长幼序,友与朋。君则敬,臣则忠。   
【解释】年长的和年幼的交往要注意长幼尊卑的次序;朋友相处应该互相讲信用。如果君主能尊重他的臣子,官吏们就会对他忠心耿耿了。
procedence(??) between elders and youngers, (probably : precedence )
as between friend and friend.
respect on the part of the sovereign,
loyalty on the part of the subject.   
   此十义,人所同。当顺叙,勿违背。   
【解释】前面提到的十义:父慈、子孝、夫和、妻顺、兄友、弟恭、朋信、友义、君敬、臣忠,这是人人都应遵守的,千万不能违背。
these ten obligations,
are common to all men.  
every one of us should protect the environment 
can't break  
   凡训蒙,须讲究。详训诂,明句读。   
【解释】凡是教导刚入学的儿童的老师,必须把每个字都讲清楚,每句话都要解释明白,并且使学童读书时懂得断句。
in the education of the young,
there should be explanation and eluciation,
careful teaching of the interpretations of commentators,
and due attention to paragraphs and sentences.    
   为学者,必有初。小学终,至四书。   
【解释】作为一个学者,求学的初期打好基础,把小学知识学透了,才可以读“四书”。  
those who are learners,
must have a beginning.
the 'little learning' finished,
they proceed to the four books. 
   论语者,二十篇。群弟子,记善言。   
【解释】《论语》这本书共有二十篇。是孔子的弟子们,以及弟子的弟子们,记载的有关孔子言论是一部书。there is the lun yu (discourse or analects),
in twenty sections.
in this, the various disciples,
have recorded the wise sayings of confucious.   
   孟子者,七篇止。讲道德,说仁义。   
【解释】《孟子》这本书是孟轲所作,共分七篇。内容也是有关品行修养、发扬道德仁义等优良德行的言论。
he works of mencius,
have comprised in seven section.
these explain the way and exemplifications thereof,
and expound clarity and duty towards one's neighbour.  
   作中庸,乃孔伋。中不偏,庸不易。   
【解释】作《中庸》这本书的是孔伋,“中”是不偏的意思,“庸”是不变的意思。
the chung yung (the doctrine of the mean),
by the pen of tzu-su;
chung (the middle) being that which odes not lean toward! s any side,
yung( the course) being that which cannot be changed.
   作大学,乃曾子。自修齐,至平治。   
【解释】作《大学》这本书的是曾参,他提出了“修身齐家治国平天下”的主张。
he who wrote the 'great learning'
was the philosopher tseng.
beginning with cultivation of the individual and ordering of the family,
it goes on to government of one's own state and ordering of the family.
   四书熟,孝经通。如六经,始可读。   
【解释】把四书读熟了,孝经的道理弄明白了,才可以去读六经这样深奥的书。
when the 'classic of filial piety' is mastered,
and the 'four books' are known by heart.
the next step is to the 'six classics',
which may now be studied.
   诗书易,礼春秋。号六经,当讲求。   
【解释】《诗》、《书》、《易》、《礼》、《春秋》,再加上《乐》称六经,这是中国古代儒家的重要经典,应当仔细阅读。
he books of poetry, of history and of changes.
the 'rites of chou dynasty, the book of tites, and the 'spring and autum
annals' are the six classics
which should be carefully explained and analysed.   
   有连山,有归藏。有周易,三易详。   
【解释】《连山》、《归藏》、《周易》,是我国古代的三部书,这三部书合称“三易”,“三易”是用“卦”的形式来说明宇宙间万事万物循环变化的道理的书籍there is the lien shan system,
there is the kuei tsang
and there is the system of changes of the chou dynasty,
such are the 3 systems wh! ich elucidate the changes.。   
   有典谟,有训诰。有誓命,书之奥。   
【解释】《书经》的内容分六个部分:一典,是立国的基本原则;二谟,即治国计划;三训,即大臣的态度;四诰,即国君的通告;五誓,起兵文告;六命,国君的命令。  
here are the regulations and the counsels,
the instruction, the annoucements,
the oaths, the charges,
these are the profundities of the book of history.  
   我周公,作周礼。著六官,存治体。   
【解释】周公著作了《周礼》,其中记载着当时六宫的官制以及国家的组成情况。
our duke of chou,
drew up the ritual of the chou dynasty,
in which he set forth the duties of the six classes of officials;
and thus gave a settled form to the government.
   大小戴,注礼记。述圣言,礼乐备。   
【解释】戴德和戴圣整理并且注释《礼记》,传述和阐扬了圣贤的著作,这使后代人知道了前代的典章制度和有关礼乐的情形。
the elder and the younger tai,
wrote commentaries on the book of rites.
they publish the holy words,
and ceremonies and music were set in order.   
   曰国风,曰雅颂。号四诗,当讽咏。   
【解释】《国风》、《大雅》、《小雅》、《颂》,合称为四诗,它是一种内容丰富、感情深切的诗歌,实在是值得我们去朗诵的。
we speak of the kuo feng,
we speak of the ya and the sung.
these are the four sections of the book of poetry,
which should be hummed over and over.    
   诗既亡,春秋作。寓褒贬,别善恶。   
【解释】后来由于周朝的衰落,诗经也就跟着被冷落了,所以孔子就作《春秋》,在这本书中隐含着对现实政治的褒贬以及对各国善恶行为的分辩。
when odes ceased to be made,
the spring and autumn annals were produced.
these annals contain praise and blame,
and distinguish the good from the bad.    
   三传者,有公羊。有左氏,有谷梁。   
【解释】三传就是羊高所著的《公羊传》,左丘明所著的《左传》和谷梁赤所著的《谷梁传》,它们都是解释《春秋》的书。
the three commentaries upon the above,
include that of kung-yang,
that of tso
and that of ku-liang.   
   经既明,方读子。撮其要,记其事。   
【解释】经传都读熟了然后读子书。子书繁杂,必须选择比较重要的来读,并且要记住每件事的本末因果。  
When the classics were understood,
then the writings of the various philosophers should be read.
Pick out the important points in each,
and take a note of the facts. 
   五子者,有荀扬。文中子,及老庄。   
【解释】五子是指荀子、扬子、文中子、老子和庄子。他们所写的书,便称为子书。   
The five chielf phlosophers,
are Haun, Yang,
Wen Chung Tzu
Lao Tzu and Chung Tzu.
   经子通,读诸史。考世系,知终始。   
【解释】经书和子书读熟了以后,再读史书、读史时必须要考究各朝各代的世系,明白他们盛衰的原因,才能从历史中记取教训。
When the classics and the philosophers are mastered,
the various histories should then be read,
and the genealogical connections should be examined,
so that the end of one dynasty and the beginning of the next be known. 
   自羲农,至黄帝。号三皇,居上世。   
【解释】自伏羲氏、神农氏到黄帝,这三位上古时代的帝王都能勤政爱民、非常伟大,因此后人尊称他们为“三皇”。   
From Fu Hsi and Shen Nung.
(??on ?? probably to or onto ) the Yellow Emperor,
these are called the three rulers.
who lived in the early ages.
   唐有虞,号二帝。相揖逊,称盛世。   
【解释】黄帝之后,有唐尧和虞舜二位帝王,尧认为自己的儿子不肖,而把帝位传给了才德兼备的舜,在两位帝王治理下,天下太平,人人称颂。  
Tang and Yu-Yu
are called the two emperors.
They adbicated, one after the other,
and their was called the Golden Age.
   夏有禹,商有汤。周文武,称三王。   
【解释】夏朝的开国君主是禹,商朝的开国君主是汤,周朝的开国君主是文王和武王。这几个德才兼备的君王被后人称为三王。   
The Hsia dynasty has Yu
and the Shang dynasty has T'ang'
The Chou dynasty had Wen and Wu;
these are called the Three Kings
   夏传子,家天下。四百载,迁夏社。   
【解释】禹把帝位传给自己的儿子,从此天下就成为一个家族所有的了。经过四百多年,夏被汤灭掉,从而结束了它的统治。   
Under the Hsia dynasty the throne was transmitted from father to son,
making a family possession of the empire.
After four hundred years,
the imperial sacrifice passed from the house of Hsia.
   周武王,始诛纣。八百载,最长久。   
【解释】周武王起兵灭掉商朝,杀死纣王,建立周朝,周朝的历史最长,前后延续了八百多年。   
King Wu of the Chou Dynasty
finally slew Chou Hsin.
His own line lasted for eight hundred years;
the longest dynasty of all.
   周辙东,王纲坠。逞干戈,尚游说。   
【解释】自从周平王东迁国都后,对诸侯的控制力就越来越弱了。诸侯国之间时常发生战争,而游说之士也开始大行其道。   
When the Chous made tracks eastwards,
the feudal bond was slackened;
the arbitrament of spear and shields prevailed;
and peripatetic politicians were held in high esteem.
   始春秋,终战国。五霸强,七雄出。   
【解释】东周分为两个阶段,一是春秋时期,一是战国时期。春秋时的齐桓公、宋襄公、晋文公、秦穆公和楚庄王号称五霸。战国的七雄分别为齐楚燕韩赵魏秦。  
This period began with the Spring and Autum Epoch
and ended with that of the Warring States.
Next, the Five Chieftains domineered,
and Seven Martial States came to the front.  
   嬴秦氏,始兼并。传二世,楚汉争。   
【解释】战国末年,秦国的势力日渐强大,把其他诸侯国都灭掉了,建立了统一的秦朝。秦传到二世胡亥,天下又开始大乱,最后,形成楚汉相争的局面。  
Then the House of Chin, descended from the Ying clan,
finally united all the states under one sway.
The thrown was transmitted to Erh Shih,
upon which followed the struggle between the Ch'u and the Han states.
   高祖兴,汉业建。至孝平,王莽篡。   
【解释】汉高祖打败了项羽,建立汉朝。汉朝的帝位传了两百多年,到了孝平帝时,就被王莽篡夺了。   
Then Kao Tsu arose,
and the House of Han was established.
When we come to the reign of Hsiao P'ing,
Wang Mang usurped the throne.
   光武兴,为东汉。四百年,终于献。   
【解释】王莽篡权。改国号为新,天下大乱,刘秀推翻更始帝,恢复国号为汉,史称东汉光武帝,东汉延续四百年,到汉献帝的时候灭亡。  
Then Kuang Wu arose,
and founded the Eastern Han Dynasty.
It lasted four hundred years,
and ended with the Emperor Hsien. 
   魏蜀吴,争汉鼎。号三国,迄两晋。   
【解释】东汉末年,魏国、蜀国、吴国争夺天下,形成三国相争的局面。后来魏灭了蜀国和吴国,但被司马炎篡夺了帝位,建立了晋朝,晋又分为东晋和西晋两个时期。   
Wei, Shu and Wu,
fought for the sovereignty of the Hans.
They were called the Three Kingdoms,
and existed until the two Chin Dynasties.
   宋齐继,梁陈承。为南朝,都金陵。   
【解释】晋朝王室南迁以后,不久就衰亡了,继之而起的是南北朝时代。南朝包括宋齐梁陈,国都建在金陵。   
Then followed the Sung and the Ch'i dynasties,
and after them the Liang and Ch'en dynasties
These are the Southen dynasties,
with their capital at Nanking.
   北元魏,分东西。宇文周,兴高齐。   
【解释】北朝则指的是元魏。元魏后来也分裂成东魏和西魏,西魏被宇文觉篡了位,建立了北周;东魏被高洋篡了位,建立了北齐。   
The northern dynasties are the Wei dynasty and the Yuan family
which split into Eastern and Western Wei.
The Chou dynasty and the Yuwen family,
with the Ch'i dynasty of the Kao family.
   迨至隋,一土宇。不再传,失统绪。   
【解释】杨坚重新统一了中国,建立了隋朝,历史上称为隋文帝。他的儿子隋炀帝杨广即位后,荒淫无道,隋朝很快就灭亡了。   
At length, under the Sui dynasty,
the empire was united under one ruler.
The throne was not transmitted twice,
succession to power being loast
   唐高祖,起义师。除隋乱,创国基。   
【解释】唐高祖李渊起兵反隋,最后隋朝灭亡,他战胜了各路的反隋义军,取得了天下,建立起唐朝。   
The first emperor of the T'ang dynasty
raised volunteer troops.
He put an end to the disorder of the House of Sui,
and established the foundation of his line.
   二十传,三百载。梁灭之,国乃改。   
【解释】唐朝的统治近三百年,总共传了二十位皇帝。到唐昭宣帝被朱全忠篡位,建立了梁朝,唐朝从此灭亡。为和南北朝时期的梁相区别,历史上称为后梁。  Twenty times the thrown was transmitted,
in a period of 300 years.
The Liang State destroyed it,
and the dynastic title was changed.
   梁唐晋,及汉周。称五代,皆有由。   
【解释】后梁、后唐、后晋、后汉和后周五个朝代的更替时期,历史上称作五代,这五个朝代的更替都有着一定的原因。   
The Liang, the T'ang, the Chin
the Han and the Chou
are called the five dynasties,
and there was a reason for the establishment of each.
   炎宋兴,受周禅。十八传,南北混。   
【解释】赵匡胤接受了后周“禅让”的帝位,建立宋朝。宋朝相传了十八个皇帝之后,北方的少数民族南下侵扰,结果又成了南北混战的局面。   
Then the fire-led house of Sung arose,
and received the resignation of the house of Chou.
Eighteen times the throne was transmitted,
and then the north and the south were reunited.
   后汉三,国志四。兼证经,参通鉴。   
【解释】第三读《后汉书》,第四读《三国志》,读的同时,还要参照经书,参考《资治通鉴》,这样我们就可以更好地了解历史的治乱兴衰了。   
The Seventeen Dynastic Histories,
are all embraced in the above.
They contain examples of good and bad government,
whence may be learnt the principles of prosperity and decay.
   读史者,考实录。通古今,若亲目。   
【解释】读历史的人应该更进一步地去翻阅历史资料,了解古往今来事情的前因后果,就好象是自己亲眼所见一样。  
Ye who read history
must study the Annals,
whereby you will understand ancient and modern events,
as though having seen them with your own eyes.
   口而诵,心而惟。朝于斯,夕于斯。   
【解释】我们读书学习,要有恒心,要一边读,一边用心去思考。只有早早晚晚都把心思用到学习上,才能真正学好。   
Recite them with the mouth,
and ponder over them in your hearts.
Do this in the morning;
do this in the evening.
   昔仲尼,师项橐。古圣贤,尚勤学。   
【解释】从前,孔子是个十分好学的人,当时鲁国有一位神童名叫项橐,孔子就曾向他学习。像孔子这样伟大的圣贤,尚不忘勤学,何况我们普通人呢?   
Of old, Confucius,
took Hsiang T'o for his teacher.
The inspired men and sages of old,
studied diligently nevertheless.
   赵中令,读鲁论。彼既仕,学且勤。   
【解释】宋朝时赵中令——赵普,他官已经做到了中书令了,天天还手不释卷地阅读论语,不因为自己已经当了高官,而忘记勤奋学习。  
Chao, president of the Council,
studied the Lu Test of the Analects.
He, when already an official,
studied and moreover, with diligence.
   披蒲编,削竹简。彼无书,且知勉。   
【解释】西汉时路温舒把文字抄在蒲草上阅读。公孙弘将春秋刻在竹子削成的竹片上。他们两人都很穷,买不起书,但还不忘勤奋学习。   
One opened out rushes and plaited them together,
another scraped tablets of bamboo.
These men had no books,
but they knew how to make an effort.
   头悬梁,锥刺股。彼不教,自勤苦。   
【解释】晋朝的孙敬读书时把自己的头发拴在屋梁上,以免打瞌睡。战国时苏秦读书每到疲倦时就用锥子刺大腿,他们不用别人督促而自觉勤奋苦读。   
One tied his head to the beam above him;
another pricked his thigh with an awl.
They were not taught,
but toiled hard of their own accord.
   如囊萤,如映雪。家虽贫,学不辍。   
【解释】晋朝人车胤,把萤火虫放在纱袋里当照明读书。孙康则利用积雪的反光来读书。他们两人家境贫苦,却能在艰苦条件下继续求学。   
Then we have one who put fireflies in a bag.
and again another who used the white glare from snow.
Although their families were poor,
these men studied uncessingly.
   如负薪,如挂角。身虽劳,犹苦卓。   
【解释】汉朝的朱买臣,以砍柴维持生活,每天边担柴边读书。隋朝李密放牛把书挂在牛角上,有时间就读。他们在艰苦的环境里仍坚持读书。   
Again, there was one who carried fuel,
and another who used horns and pegs.
Although they toiled with their bodies,
they were nevertheless remarkable for their application.
   苏老泉,二十七。始发愤,读书籍。   
【解释】唐宋八大家之一的苏洵,号老泉,小时候不想念书,到了二十七岁的时候,才开始下决心努力学习,后来成了大学问家。   
Shu Lao-Chuan,
at the age of twenty-seven
at last began to show his energy,
and devote himself to the study of books.
   彼既老,犹悔迟。尔小生,宜早思。   
【解释】象苏老泉上了年纪,才后悔当初没好好读书,而我们年纪轻轻,更应该把握大好时光,发奋读书,才不至于将来后悔。   
Then when already past the age,
he deeply regretted his delay.
You little boys,
should take thought betimes.
   若梁灏,八十二。对大廷,魁多士。   
【解释】宋朝有个梁灏,在八十二岁时才考中状元,在金殿上对皇帝提出的问题对答如流,所有参加考试的人都不如他。   
Then there were Liang Hao,
who at the age of eighty-two,
made his replies to the great hall,
and came out first among many scholars.
   彼既成,众称异。尔小生,宜立志。   
【解释】梁灏这么大年纪,尚能获得成功,不能不使大家感到惊异,钦佩他的好学不倦。而我们应该趁着年轻的时候,立定志向,努力用功就一定前途无量。  
When thus late he had succeeded,
all men pronounced him a prodigy.
You little boys,
should make up your minds to work.
   莹八岁,能咏诗。泌七岁,能赋棋。   
【解释】北齐有个叫祖莹的人,八岁就能呤诗,后来当了秘书监著作郎。另外唐朝有个叫李泌的人,七岁时就能以下棋为题而作出诗赋。   
Jung at eight of age,
could compose poetry.
Pi, at seven years of age,
could make an epigram on wei-ch'.i
   彼颖悟,人称奇。尔幼学,当效之。   
【解释】他们两个人的聪明和才智,在当时很受人们的赞赏和称奇,现在我们正是求学的开始,应该效法他们,努力用功读书。   
These youths were quick of apprehension,
and people declared them to be prodigies.
You young learners,
ought to imitate them.
   蔡文姬,能辩琴。谢道韫,能咏吟。   
【解释】在古代有许多出色的女能人。象东汉末年的蔡文姬能分辩琴声好坏,晋朝的才女谢道韫则能出口成诗。   
Ts'ai Wen-chi,
was able to judge from the sound of a psaltery.
Hsieh Tao-yun,
was able to compose verses.
   彼女子,且聪敏。尔男子,当自警。   
【解释】象这样的两个女孩子,一个懂音乐,一个会作诗,天资如此聪慧;身为一个男子汉,更要时时警惕,充实自己才对。   
They were only girls,
yet they were quick and clever.
You boys ought to
rouse yourselves.
   唐刘晏,方七岁。举神童,作正字。   
【解释】唐玄宗时,有一个名叫刘晏的小孩子,才只有七岁,就被推举为神童,并且做了负责刊正文字的官。   
Liu Yen of the Tang dynasty
when only seven years of age,
was ranked as an "inspired child" (child prodigy)
and was appointed a Corrector of Texts.
   彼虽幼,身已仕。有为者,亦若是。   
【解释】刘晏虽然年纪这么小,但却已经做官来,担当国家给他的重任,要想成为一个有用的人,只要勤奋好学,也可以和刘晏一样名扬后世。  
He, although a child,
was already in an official post.
Those who work,
will also succeed as he did.
   犬守夜,鸡司晨。苟不学,曷为人。   
【解释】狗在夜间会替人看守家门,鸡在每天早晨天亮时报晓,人如果不能用心学习、迷迷糊糊过日子,有什么资格称为人呢。   
The dog keep guard by night;
the cock proclaims the dawn.
If foolishly you do not study,
how can you become men ?
   蚕吐丝,蜂酿蜜。人不学,不如物。   
【解释】蚕吐丝以供我们做衣料,蜜蜂可以酿制蜂蜜,供人们食用。而人要是不懂得学习,以自己的知识、技能来实现自己的价值,真不如小动物。   
The silkworm produced silk,
the bee makes honey.
If man does not learn,
he is not equal to the brutes
   幼而学,壮而行。上致君,下泽民。   
【解释】我们要在幼年时努力学习不断充实自己,长大后能够学以致用,上替国家效力,下为人民谋福利。   
Learn while young,
and when grown up apply what you have learn;
influencing the soverign above,
benefitting the people below.
   扬名声,显父母。光于前,裕于后。   
【解释】如果你为人民做出应有的贡献,人民就会赞扬你,而且父母也可以得到你的荣耀,给连祖先增添了光彩,也给下代留下了好的榜样。   
Make a name for yourselves,
and glority you father and mother.
shed lustre on your ancestors,
enrich your posterity.
   人遗子,金满赢。我教子,唯一经。   
【解释】有的人遗留给子孙后代的是金银钱财,而我并不这样,我只希望他们能精于读书学习,长大后做个有所作为的人。   
Men bequeath to their children,
coffers of gold.
I teach you children,
only this book.
   勤有功,戏无益。戒之哉,宜勉力。   
【解释】反复讲了许多道理,只是告诉孩子们,凡是勤奋上进的人,都会有好的收获,而只顾贪玩,浪费了大好时光是一定要后悔的。
Diligence has its reward;
play has no advantages,
Oh, be on your guard,
and put forth your strength.


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发表于 2013-3-6 14:11:21 | 显示全部楼层
楼主很给力,解释与翻译让读者很受益,我学的很快乐!

The important thing in life is to have a great aim,and the determination to attain it.
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发表于 2013-3-6 22:08:07 | 显示全部楼层
一人一风景 发表于 2013-3-6 14:11
楼主很给力,解释与翻译让读者很受益,我学的很快乐!

嘿嘿,谢谢啦
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