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《荷马史诗》连载 第一部 《伊利亚特》 (一)

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发表于 2013-2-11 19:28:29 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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关键字: 荷马史诗 伊利亚特 阿基琉斯 阿伽门农
本帖最后由 一人一风景 于 2013-2-14 10:34 编辑

            第一部      伊利亚特

  第一卷
——阿基琉斯与阿伽门农因争吵而结仇

高歌吧!女神!为了佩琉斯之子阿基琉斯的暴怒!
他的致命的愤怒给阿开奥斯人带来
无尽的苦难,将战士的健壮的英魂
打入冥府,他们的躯体成为野狗
和秃鹰的美食,宙斯的意愿实现了。
请从阿特柔斯之子、人民的国王阿伽门农
和神一样的阿基琉斯之间的争执开始吧!

是哪位天神挑起了两人的争执?
是宙斯与勒托之子阿波罗。他对国王不满,
在他的军中降下凶恶的瘟疫,吞噬了将士的生命,
只是因为阿伽门农侮辱了他的祭司克律塞斯。
后者来到阿开奥斯人的快船请求
赎回爱女,并且带来了难以数计的赎礼,
他手握黄金杖,杖上系着远射神阿波罗的头带,
恳请所有的阿开奥斯人,尤其向阿特柔斯的两个儿子
阿伽门农和墨涅拉奥斯兄弟、士兵的统帅请求:
“阿特柔斯的儿子啊!胫甲坚固的阿开奥斯将士们啊!
愿居住在奥林卑斯山的众天神允许你们洗劫
普里阿摩斯的都城,然后平安返回家园。
请你们收下赎礼,释放我的宝贝女儿,
以表达你们对宙斯之子、远射神阿波罗的崇敬。”

其他的阿开奥斯人均发出赞同的呼声,
表示应该尊重祭司,收下丰厚的赎礼;
然而,阿特柔斯之子阿伽门农内心不悦,
他用严厉的话语斥退了这位老人:
“老家伙,不要让我在深旷的海船旁边再看见你,
现在立即滚开,以后也不许再来。
否则,你的手杖和杖顶天神的头带
也难以保护你!我不会释放你的女儿,
她将远离故乡,在阿耳戈斯,我的居住地,
在织布机旁忙碌,在我的床前忙碌,
直到人老珠黄。走吧!别再气我。赶紧平安回家。”

他这样的一顿咒骂,使老人心里害怕,不敢违抗。
老人沿着波涛呼啸的海边,默默地离去,
走了很远,便向阿波罗,美发的勒托的儿子
祈祷,念念有词地说:
“保卫克律塞斯和神圣的基拉的银弓之神,
统治着特涅多斯的灭鼠神,请聆听我的祈祷:
如果我曾盖了你的庙宇,欢悦了你的心胸,
或者曾为你烧烤过肥美的公牛和山羊的
大腿,请你实现我的祷告:
用你的神箭让达那奥斯人赔偿我的泪水。”

他这样的祈祷,福波斯·阿波罗听到了。
肩上挂着弯弓和箭袋,从奥林卑斯山峰上,
怒气冲冲地直奔而下。
天神气愤地进行着,箭头在肩上琅琅作响,
他的降临有如黑夜覆盖了大地。
他立即坐在远离海船的地方射出一支飞箭,
银弓的放弦声使人胆颤心惊,
他先射强壮的骡子和飞跑的狗,
又把利箭射向人群。
焚尸的烈火经久不灭,柴草烧掉一层又一层。
连续九天,天神把利箭射向军队,
直到第十天,阿基琉斯召集众将士开会,
是白臂女神让他萌生开会的念头,
因为眼见达那奥斯人成片地倒下,她心生怜悯。
当众将士聚合后,
捷足的阿基琉斯站了起来,他大声说:
“阿特柔斯之子,如果战争和瘟疫要毁灭
阿开奥斯人,我们必须返船撤退,
这样才能幸免一死。
不过,我们可以先询问通神之人或先知或圆梦之人,
因为梦是宙斯送来的,
他也许会告诉我们为什么福波斯·阿波罗如此盛怒,
是否因为我疏忽了还愿或丰盛的百牲祭?
如果他闻到我们献上的绵羊或山羊的香气,
他或许会中止这场瘟疫所带来的灾难。”

言毕,阿基琉斯落座,特斯托尔之子卡尔卡斯,
最高明的卜鸟师,站了起来。
他通晓古今和未来,
曾运用福波斯·阿波罗传给他的预言术,
引导阿开奥斯人的战船来到了伊利昂。
怀着善意,他对大家说:
“阿基琉斯,宙斯所钟爱的勇士,你让我
说出远射神阿波罗盛怒的原因,我愿意,
但你必须对我发誓,
你将真心地用言语和臂膀保护我,
因为我知道,一位强者会被我的释言激怒,
他强有力地统治着阿尔戈斯人,全体人归附于他。
对于地位低下的人,国王的发威并非儿戏,
虽然当时可以咽下怒气,但仍会记恨于我,
直到仇恨在胸中消失。
因此,你要仔细考虑,是否准备保障我的安全。”
听完他的话,捷足的阿基琉斯这样回答:
“你放心大胆地把预言讲出来吧。

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The important thing in life is to have a great aim,and the determination to attain it.
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发表于 2013-2-11 19:52:31 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 一人一风景 于 2013-2-11 19:56 编辑

    荷马史诗(包括《伊利亚特》、《奥德赛》,这两部史诗相传是盲人歌手荷马创作,所以统称为荷马史诗)是古希腊文学辉煌的代表,其内容丰富多彩,堪称人类童年社会的"百科全书"。《伊利亚特》是一部描写古代战争的巨著,叙述的是古希腊人和特洛伊人之间的一场战争,歌颂了与异族战斗的英雄。   
    荷马史诗是欧洲叙事诗的典范,一直被认为是最伟大的古代史诗,是人类古代文明的奇葩,在世界文学史上有着无可取代的地位,马克思称其具有“永久的魅力”,是“一种规范和高不可及的范本”。     
    荷马史诗对后世文学影响深远,但丁、莎士比亚、歌德、托尔斯泰等享誉世界的文学家们都十分推崇荷马史诗,并从中获取过丰富的文学养分。
    荷马与但丁、莎士比亚、歌德被西方文学界并称为世界四大诗人。而荷马则又被但丁在《神曲》中誉为“诗人之王”。
                                                         来自网络整理

The important thing in life is to have a great aim,and the determination to attain it.
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发表于 2013-2-13 22:14:15 | 显示全部楼层
荷马:游吟传唱出的两部史诗,为西方第一个诗人,荷马史诗是西方文学的开山之作
The only limit to our realization of tomorrow will be our doubts of today. 实现明天理想的唯一障碍是 ...
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发表于 2013-2-15 19:11:30 | 显示全部楼层
找到英文版!

Sing, O goddess, the anger of Achilles son of Peleus, that brought
countless ills upon the Achaeans. Many a brave soul did it send hurrying
down to Hades, and many a hero did it yield a prey to dogs and vultures,
for so were the counsels of Jove fulfilled from the day on which the
son of Atreus, king of men, and great Achilles, first fell out with
one another.

And which of the gods was it that set them on to quarrel? It was the
son of Jove and Leto; for he was angry with the king and sent a pestilence
upon the host to plague the people, because the son of Atreus had
dishonoured Chryses his priest. Now Chryses had come to the ships
of the Achaeans to free his daughter, and had brought with him a great
ransom: moreover he bore in his hand the sceptre of Apollo wreathed
with a suppliant's wreath and he besought the Achaeans, but most of
all the two sons of Atreus, who were their chiefs.

"Sons of Atreus," he cried, "and all other Achaeans, may the gods
who dwell in Olympus grant you to sack the city of Priam, and to reach
your homes in safety; but free my daughter, and accept a ransom for
her, in reverence to Apollo, son of Jove."

On this the rest of the Achaeans with one voice were for respecting
the priest and taking the ransom that he offered; but not so Agamemnon,
who spoke fiercely to him and sent him roughly away. "Old man," said
he, "let me not find you tarrying about our ships, nor yet coming
hereafter. Your sceptre of the god and your wreath shall profit you
nothing. I will not free her. She shall grow old in my house at Argos
far from her own home, busying herself with her loom and visiting
my couch; so go, and do not provoke me or it shall be the worse for
you."

The old man feared him and obeyed. Not a word he spoke, but went by
the shore of the sounding sea and prayed apart to King Apollo whom
lovely Leto had borne. "Hear me," he cried, "O god of the silver bow,
that protectest Chryse and holy Cilla and rulest Tenedos with thy
might, hear me oh thou of Sminthe. If I have ever decked your temple
with garlands, or burned your thigh-bones in fat of bulls or goats,
grant my prayer, and let your arrows avenge these my tears upon the
Danaans."

Thus did he pray, and Apollo heard his prayer. He came down furious
from the summits of Olympus, with his bow and his quiver upon his
shoulder, and the arrows rattled on his back with the rage that trembled
within him. He sat himself down away from the ships with a face as
dark as night, and his silver bow rang death as he shot his arrow
in the midst of them. First he smote their mules and their hounds,
but presently he aimed his shafts at the people themselves, and all
day long the pyres of the dead were burning.

For nine whole days he shot his arrows among the people, but upon
the tenth day Achilles called them in assembly- moved thereto by Juno,
who saw the Achaeans in their death-throes and had compassion upon
them. Then, when they were got together, he rose and spoke among them.

"Son of Atreus," said he, "I deem that we should now turn roving home
if we would escape destruction, for we are being cut down by war and
pestilence at once. Let us ask some priest or prophet, or some reader
of dreams (for dreams, too, are of Jove) who can tell us why Phoebus
Apollo is so angry, and say whether it is for some vow that we have
broken, or hecatomb that we have not offered, and whether he will
accept the savour of lambs and goats without blemish, so as to take
away the plague from us."

With these words he sat down, and Calchas son of Thestor, wisest of
augurs, who knew things past present and to come, rose to speak. He
it was who had guided the Achaeans with their fleet to Ilius, through
the prophesyings with which Phoebus Apollo had inspired him. With
all sincerity and goodwill he addressed them thus:-

"Achilles, loved of heaven, you bid me tell you about the anger of
King Apollo, I will therefore do so; but consider first and swear
that you will stand by me heartily in word and deed, for I know that
I shall offend one who rules the Argives with might, to whom all the
Achaeans are in subjection. A plain man cannot stand against the anger
of a king, who if he swallow his displeasure now, will yet nurse revenge
till he has wreaked it. Consider, therefore, whether or no you will
protect me."

And Achilles answered, "Fear not, but speak as it is borne in upon
you from heaven, for by Apollo, Calchas, to whom you pray, and whose
oracles you reveal to us, not a Danaan at our ships shall lay his
hand upon you, while I yet live to look upon the face of the earth-
no, not though you name Agamemnon himself, who is by far the foremost
of the Achaeans."
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发表于 2013-2-15 19:39:41 | 显示全部楼层
好棒
The important thing in life is to have a great aim,and the determination to attain it.
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